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State the different types of Non-Book Material (NBM). Discuss the constraints in using them and problems in their cataloguing.

Non-book resources consist of information materials and carriers can be accessed in various formats other than books and periodicals. These kinds of resources have a wide range of data and significant information as well. Non-book resources have various formats and carriers of audio visual, cartographical, three dimensional and graphics materials. In addition to books in libraries, non-book resources are also increasingly used. However, books still retain their main place in libraries, but must also accept the fact that non-book resources are continuously arriving at the library collection with pay attention to the special situation of these kinds of resources. Some, users prefer to use them even more than the books.

Non-Book Material (NBM) refers to materials that are not in the traditional book format, such as maps, photographs, manuscripts, audio and video recordings, and digital materials.

Here are some different types of NBM:

1.       Maps: These include topographical maps, geological maps, and other types of maps that provide information about the earth's surface.

2.       Photographs: These include prints, negatives, and digital images that capture scenes or subjects in still form.

3.       Manuscripts: These include handwritten or typed documents, such as diaries, letters, and other primary source materials.

4.       Audio and video recordings: These include recordings of music, speeches, and other types of sound and moving images.

5.       Digital materials: These include digital images, videos, audio files, e-books, and other types of digital information.

6.       Art objects: These include paintings, sculptures, and other types of works of art.

7.       Microforms: These include microfilm and microfiche, which are used to store and preserve small-format materials such as photographs, newspapers, and manuscripts.

There are several constraints in using NBM, including:

1.       Accessibility: Some NBM may be difficult to access due to their physical format, such as microforms or art objects.

2.       Preservation: Some NBM may be fragile and require special handling and storage conditions to preserve them.

3.       Digitization: Some NBM may need to be digitized in order to make them more widely accessible, but this process can be costly and time-consuming.

4.       Technical expertise: Some NBM may require specialized equipment and technical expertise to access and use, such as audio and video recordings.

Problems in cataloguing NBM are multiple, some of them are:

1.       Format: NBM can come in a variety of formats, which can make cataloguing them more complex than traditional books.

2.       Metadata: NBM may require different types of metadata than traditional books, such as information about the format or duration of a video or audio recording.

3.       Accessibility: NBM may be less accessible than traditional books, which can make it more challenging to find and retrieve them.

4.       Preservation: NBM may require specific preservation methods, which can add complexity to cataloguing them.

5.       Technical expertise: Cataloguing NBM can require a high level of technical expertise and specialized knowledge.

In conclusion, Non-Book Material (NBM) can provide valuable information, but their use can be constrained by accessibility, preservation, equipment, and cost issues. Cataloging NBM can be a complex task, requiring specialized knowledge and technical expertise, as well as specific metadata


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